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2,4-D (2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) injury. Leaf twisting, malformation, and curling are common symptoms of 2,4-D herbicide exposure from spray drift, volatilization, or sprayer contamination. Spraying 2,4-D under dry, low humidity conditions and at temperatures above 85°F or using ester formulations of this product can lead to volatilization and movement from the application area.

Leaf distortion from 2,4-D herbicide (Strang, UKY)
Leaf distortion from 2,4-D herbicide.

(Photo: John Strang, University of Kentucky)



  • Use labeled products
  • Avoid applications when temperatures are above 85°F
  • Use a coarse spray at a low spray pressure to avoid volatilization and drift


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